|ATF–06–01||Aluminium Measuring and Benchmarking|
|ATF–06–02||Management of PFC Emissions*|
|ATF–06–03||Management of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud)*|
|ATF–06–04||High Silica Bauxite Processing|
|ATF–06–05||Fluoride Emissions Management|
|ATF–06–07||Linkages to Technology Providers|
|ATF–09–08||Development of Generic Computer Software for Automated Anode Effect Control|
This project is intended to develop a procedure and indices for benchmarking and measuring aluminium sustainability and to provide Partners with baseline knowledge to facilitate data collection. The new indices, updated by participating Partners, are to be used in concert with other project plans that support perfluorocarbons emissions management, fluoride emissions management and recycling, providing an essential foundation for future projects. Progress in emission management, as defined in the industry Memorandum of Understanding, will be monitored on a three-year basis. Australia, China, India, Japan, and the United States are participating Partners in this Project.
This project enables all primary production facilities in each of the Partner countries to identify and implement cost-effective, technically-feasible opportunities to optimize anode effects in electrolytic cells, the primary source of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) during aluminium production. This is accomplished by providing relevant tools for developing PFC inventories and reporting regimes in order to facilitate the development and adoption of smelter-specific PFC emission reduction strategies. This project has significant potential to reduce current and future greenhouse gas emissions from aluminium smelting. Australia, China, and the United States are participating Partners in this project.
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Worldwide, aluminium is generated from alumina, which is produced from an ore called bauxite. Approximately 1.5 to 2 tons of bauxite residue (also known as red mud), an environmentally problematic substance, are generated per ton of alumina produced. While a number of potential uses have been suggested for the residue, currently there are no economically viable and environmentally acceptable solutions for effective use of the large volume of residue generated. In this project, participating countries focus on developing technically and economically sound options for bauxite residue in various end uses, including applications in the steel and cement industries, physically and chemically stabilizing the residue, and minimizing both the amount of land and the time necessary for residue storage. Australia, China, and India are participating Partners in this project.
Increased worldwide demand for alumina, currently at more than 160 million tons per year, is expected to lead to a gradual global decline of high-grade bauxite, the ore from which alumina is generally produced. Due to higher demand and declining supply, there is a need to develop new environmentally friendly and economically viable processes and technologies for alumina production from lower-grade bauxite, which is high in silica minerals that need to be removed. In this project, Australia, China, and India are working together to improve processing of high silica bauxite. This includes increasing the amount of alumina recovered by reprocessing alumina recovered by reprocessing of byproduct residues, recovering and subsequently reusing chemicals required for processing, and producing commercially and economically viable products from resides in order to defray the environmental impact and overall costs of the currently used processes. Australia, China, and India are participating Partners in this project.
Fluoride emissions (as gases and particulates) result from the aluminium smelting process, which requires fluoride. These emissions are an important environmental concern for the smelting sector since, depending on local conditions; they can have serious impacts on local flora and fauna. In this project, participating countries will work to manage fluoride emissions in order to minimize or eliminate environmental impacts by providing smelters with information on their operation’s fluoride emissions performance as it relates to the global average. The project also works toward implementing best practices and employing technologies which can reduce fluoride emissions across primary aluminium smelters in all of the Partner countries. Australia, China, and the United States are participating Partners in this project.
Aluminium recycling uses only five percent of the energy required for primary metal production and avoids emissions of perfluorocarbons and other harmful pollutants associated with alumina processing and aluminium production. In the first step of this project, participating countries will track baseline aluminium recycling rates, focusing on aluminium beverage cans, and develop an annual reporting mechanism to monitor progress. The project also plans to develop a database of best practices for collection and recycling operations, including environmental and safety practices to enhance sustainable recycling operations. Australia, China, India, Japan, and the United States are participating Partners in this project.
The implementation of activities under the Aluminium Task Force relies on the application of new and existing technology to enhance both environmental and commercial performance. Australia, China, India and the United States plan to create a publicly available register of technology providers in order to ease access to necessary resources for implementing change. It will also enable participants to link to industry and environmental experts and foster a competitive market environment that cultivates more environmentally friendly activities. In the first phase, an internet-based register for Partner country national industry associations and governments involved in the Task Force will be generated. Australia, China, India, and the United States are participating Partners in this project.
PFCs have a long atmospheric lifetime and a global warming potential (GWP) several thousand times greater than that of CO2. Managing PFC emissions is an important step towards mitigating climate change. Production of primary aluminium emits PFCs, but introducing technology which automatically detects anode effects could reduce this process' PFC emissions in China - which conducts 32% of the world's primary aluminium production - an estimated 22 to 29%, or 1.1 to 2.1 MMTCO2-eq. This project will upgrade several aluminium smelters in China from manual anode effect kill to automated kill sequence, also building capacity within industry, academia, and government to speed the transition of the remaining smelters in China. The United States and China are participating Partners in this project.